Chow Tai Fook x Milus

Chow Tai Fook confirmed the takeover of Milus, which had been part of the Peace Mark Group since 2002. The former owner of the brand was placed under provisional liquidation of bankruptcy in Sept 2008.


Herios Handwinding (Ref.: HER004)

Milus said "Backed by its new investor, it can strengthen its brand positioning and its retail presence in core markets". Its statement said "The company is honored to become a member of this remarkable group, [and] will put all its efforts toward strong and successful growth".


Monocera (Ref.: MON017)

Founded in 1919, Milus has always been firmly based in the cradle of watch making in Biel-Bienne, Switzerland. It achieved an artistic way to measure the moment and represents beautifully the outstanding Swiss watchmaking skill of mechanical finesse, graceful movement and exclusivity.

source: europastar.com, jckonline.com

Glass by Robert Tiso

Robert Tiso - J.S. Bach Badinerie

Is White Gold The Same As Platinum?

白金或鉑金都是 Platinum. 相反 White Gold 是 "K 白金" 或 "白K 金".



Platinum 學名為"鉑", 化學元素符號為 "Pt". 白金首飾一般都會打上 "Pt" 字樣, 例如 "Pt900", 表示這件首飾是用千分之九百的純白金製造. 常見的純白金有 "Pt950, Pt900, Pt850" 等分別.

White gold is an alloy of gold and some white metals such as silver and palladium. White gold can be 18kt, 14kt, 9kt or any karat. The natural color of White Gold is actually light grey. With Rhodium plating, White Gold will look more white than it should be. The color difference between Platinum and Rhodium plated White Gold is not noticeable. However, Rhodium does wear away eventually. Therefore, re-Rhodium plating is needed for White Gold by about every 12 to 18 months.

K 白金, 或稱 白K 金, 是黃金與其他金屬的合金. 因加入其他金屬的比例不同, 使其顏色像是純白金.但其價格比純白金便宜許多. K 代表黃金的純度, 如 14K 白金 和 18K 白金. 市場以 14K白金較為流行.



In general, a platinum ring will be approximately twice the price of an 18kt White Gold ring.

Gold

Pure Yellow Gold (fine gold) is softer than pure silver, but harder than tin. Its beauty and luster are unmatched by any alloyed gold (pure gold mixed with other metals). The extreme malleability, ductility, and softness of pure gold make it practically useless for jewelry applications. It is just too soft!





The addition of alloying elements (other metals) to gold are used to increase the toughness and hardness of the metal. While almost any metal can be alloyed (melted) with gold, only certain metals will not dramatically change the color or make the metal brittle. The addition of the metal like Indium (great as an alloy with Platinum), for instance, turns gold into a purple color and gives resulting gold the workability of glass. Any pressure and it shatters.



Over time, certain percentages of gold have become legally recognized "karats". The karat indicates the amount of gold as a percentage of the total:

24 karat is 24/24's gold or 100% gold

18 karat is 18/24's gold or 75% gold
(25% of the other metals are non-gold)

14 karat is 14/24's gold or 58.33% gold
(41.67% of the other metals are non-gold)

source: ringdesigner.com

A. Dunhill

The long association with automobile, which was dating back to the days when the first horseless carriages appeared, made car-themed designs become the key element of all A. Dunhill watches.



Established in 1893, Alfred Dunhill began manufacturing timepieces in 1903. At the time, gentlemen had no time in checking on his pocket during driving. So, Alfred had came up an idea in fitting a pocket watch into the sturdy dashboard-mounted brass case. The case was teardrop shaped and had a hinged porthole cover which allowed the watch to be removed at the end of the journey.


The Dashboard Clock in brass casing circa 1903 was usually placed upside down to protect it from the mostly unfavourable weather in England

Later, Rolls Royce turned to Alfred to produce the perfect interior lamp for their automobile in early 1900's. Later, his decedents carried the crystal of the interior lamp over into watches, and created the first facet-shaped watch in 1936. The unusual faceted crystal made the timepiece unmistakably recognizable, and it had become the signature of A. Dunhill watches.


A. Dunhill Facet 1936

In SIHH 2002, the Dunhillion collection was introduced. It illustrated the latest interpretation of A. Dunhill's signature facet wristwatch.





With a unique three-layer dial construction and a functional diving counter that is operated by a crown at 2 o’clock, the Dunhillion Automatic Citydiver is an oversized timepiece. Crystal skeleton caseback reveals the intricate mechanical movement of the ETA 2621. The Citydiver features a brushed steel case which is fitted with a rubberized leather bracelet and is water-resistant to 50 meters. It is a dynamic, yet masculine choice of taste.

In SIHH 2004, Bobby Finder, CityTamer, and CityFighter were introduced.


Bobby Finder SP30
Serial: DCX551AL
Movement: Dubois-Depraz 2030 (Based on ETA 2824-2)
Case Diameter: 40mm


CityTamer
Serial: DCX981BM
Movement: ETA 2671
Case: 26mmW x 49mmH



CityFighter
Serial: DCX991AM
Movement: ETA 2671
Case: 28mmW x 44mmH


Sources: Cigar Clan, iW, WatchBizz

Geneva Seal

The Geneva Seal (Poinçon de Genève in French) is the official seal of the City and the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland. When a variation of the seal is applied to a wristwatch movement, it reflects the movement was complying to the high quality standard set by the Geneva School of Horology.

Although the "standardization" is concerned mainly with the finishing and decorations of the movement, it is considered as a high accolade in the industry. Patek Philippe, Vacheron Constantin and a few other brands are very proud to have their watches to be stamped with the Geneva Seal.


Sample Certificate

Lately, Cartier had also joined this "accreditation" by selling the Ballon Bleu de Cartier Flying Tourbillion. The Ballon Bleu Flying Tourbillion is the first watchmaking creation of her which is qaulified to have Geneva Seal marked onto it's movement. Also, it helps to put Cartier into the very fine selected circle of manufacturers that can lay claim to this "distinction".


Cartier Ballon Bleu Tourbillon Volant
Manual Winding Caliber 9452
MC
Hallmark of Geneva Seal
Flying Tourbillon Showing The Second by the Racket-shaped C
19 Rubies
21,600 Vibrations per hour
142 Components
50h Power Reserve


Not surprisingly, Cartier does not create the tourbillon movement (9452 MC) by themselves. The movement is actually the very first calibre which comes from the Roger Dubuis facilities after it had been acquired by the Richemont Group in Sept 2007 (Sadly, a large part of the former Roger Dubuis Manufacture will be reserved for Cartier). The whole development of the 9452 MC calibre was carried out by the Manufacture Genevoise de Haute Horlogerie (the Roger Dubuis' industrial facilities) and its staff, i.e. how much of work did Cartier really need to do by themselves in achieving the hallmark.


In a glance, I believe Cartier 9452 MC was developed from Roger Dubuis RD 02 SQ3. Unfortunately, no proper information is made available from the corporate websites.

In protesting against Cartier's admittance, rumors surfaced in April that Patek Philippe would no longer carry the Geneva Seal for their future models.


Patek Philippe, 5101P

source: HH Journal, PuristPro, Wikipedia

Chow Tai Fook x Peace Mark

In Sept 2008, Peace Mark had sold its STM Holding (which was being acquired by Peace Mark in late 2007) to the Festina group. STM makes about 300,000 mechanical movements and 100 million quartz movements annually, while Festina (a Spanish watch company) who does own several brands including Festina, Jaguar and Perrelet.

In Oct 2008, Chow Tai Fook confirmed it will take over some of the retail operations and the manufacturing facilities of Peace Mark (which was in provisional liquidation). Under the deal, Chow Tai Fook would take control of two factories and over 1,000 retail stores of Peace Mark across China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan.

Source: JCK online, The Standard

LG KU990 Viewty Goes White

In this Autumn (Oct 2008), LG Viewty is turning white.



Featuring the same capabilities as the original Viewty, LG Viewty White comes with a fantastic 5MP Xenon-flashed camera (certified by Schneider- Kreuznach), which is capable of capturing videos at 120fps.



This camera phone adopts manual focus option, an image stabilizer and an ISO up to 800 for indoor or night shooting.

The LG Viewty White also come with a music player, an FM radio with RDS and the stereo bluetooth support.

Other features include a 3-inch touchscreen, an expandable microSD card (up to 2 GB), and a jog wheel on the back. Users are able to write, edit and draw directly on screen with a stylus pen or with your fingertips.

William Bamue Tourbillon

The first tourbillon to be offered by Baume & Mercier.



Numbered edition of 10, the William Baume Tourbillon comes in 18-carat red gold in 43mm wide with a manually-wound movement, WB-T002.

The watch features a quite unusual placement of the tourbillon aperture at 9 o’clock. It is elegant and beautiful.


William Baume – Tourbillon (limited to 10 pieces)
Reference: M0A0 8796
Movement: WB-T002, manual, decorated
Functions: Tourbillon at 9 o'clock and Small Seconds Counter at 6 o'clock
Case: 43mm in 18K red Gold Case with Sapphire Crystal Case Back
Dial: “Vieux panier” Guilloché Décor
Water Resistance: 30 m

Pringles Salty Snack

A potato chip or crisp is a thin slice of potato, deep fried or baked until crisp. The simplest chips of this kind are just cooked and salted, but manufacturers can add a wide variety of flavoring (mostly made using herbs, spices, cheese, artificial additives or MSG).

Since potato contains 75% of water, it takes approximately 4 pounds of potatoes to make 1 pound of potato chips.





In July 2008, Judge Justice Warren (High Court, UK) said Pringles' "unnatural shape", distinctive tube packaging, and non-potato ingredients meant that the snack could not be classified as a crisp.

The ruling pointed out that Pringles – who are most famous for their irritatingly catch adverts "once you pop, you can't stop" – contain corn flour, wheat starch, maltodextrin, emulsifier, rice flour and dextrose, and just 42 per cent potato content.

Sources: Telegraph, UK, Wikiepedia

World Leading University - 2008

2008 Rank 2007 Rank Institution Country Score
1 1 Harvard University US 100.0
2 2= Yale University US 99.8
3 2= University of Cambridge UK 99.5
4 2= University of Oxford UK 98.9
5 7= California Institute of Technology US 98.6
6 5 Imperial College London UK 98.4
7 9 University College London UK 98.1
8 7= University of Chicago US 98.0
9 10 Massachusetts Institute of Technology US 96.7
10 11 Columbia University US 96.3
11 14 University of Pennsylvania US 96.1
12 6 Princeton University US 95.7
13= 13 Duke University US 94.4
13= 15 Johns Hopkins University US 94.4
15 20= Cornell University US 94.3
16 16 Australian National University Australia 92.0
17 19 Stanford University US 91.2
18 38= University of Michigan US 91.0
19 17 University of Tokyo Japan 90.0
20 12 McGill University Canada 89.7
21 20= Carnegie Mellon University US 89.6
22 24 King's College London UK 89.5
23 23 University of Edinburgh UK 89.3
24 42

ETH Zurich

(Swiss Federal Institute of Technology)

Switzerland 89.1
25 25 Kyoto University Japan 87.4
26 18 University of Hong Kong HK 87.1
27 32 Brown University US 85.2
28 26 Ecole Normale Supérieure, Paris France 84.8
29 30 University of Manchester UK 84.4
30= 41 University of California, Los Angeles US 84.3
30= 33= National University of Singapore Singapore 84.3
32 37 University of Bristol UK 84.1
33 29 Northwestern University US 83.3
34= 33= University of British Columbia Canada 83.0
34= 28 Ecole Polytechnique France 83.0
36 22 University of California, Berkeley US 82.9
37 31 University of Sydney Australia 82.4
38 27 University of Melbourne Australia 82.3
39 53=

Hong Kong University of

Science and Technology

HK 81.4
40 49 New York University US 81.3
41 45 University of Toronto Canada 81.1
42 38 Chinese University of Hong Kong HK 81.0
43 33= University of Queensland Australia 80.7
44 46 Osaka University Japan 80.1
45 44 University of New South Wales Australia 79.8
46 47 Boston University US 79.1
47 43 Monash University Australia 78.7
48 93= University of Copenhagen Denmark 78.5
49 53 Trinity College Dublin Ireland 78.2
50= 117= Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne Switzerland 78.1
50= 36 Peking University China 78.1
50= 51 Seoul National University South Korea 78.1

Source: Times Higher Education (UK)

Fountain Pen Makers by Country of Origin

France - Cartier

Germany - Faber-Castell | Lamy | Montblanc | Rotring | Pelikan

Italy - Aurora | Montegrappa | OMAS | Stipula | Visconti

Japan - Namiki | Pilot

Switzerland - Caran d'Ache

The United States - Cross | Franklin-Christoph | Parker | Sheaffer | Waterman

UK - Conway Stewart | Alfred Dunhill

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Interesting to know... ...

Waterman was established by Lewis Edson Waterman in New York in 1884 (but, not in Paris).

In 1883, Waterman was an insurance broker in New York City, getting ready to sign one of his hottest contracts. In honor of the occasion, he bought a new fountain pen that he considered much more stylish than the dip pen and ink well. To Waterman's frustration the pen broke and spilled ink all over the contract. Waterman then rushed back to his office to get another contract, but by the time he got back another broker had closed the deal.

After his humiliating contract signing, Waterman then strove to make better fountain pens in his brother, Frank Waterman's, work shop. He used the capillarity principle which allowed air to induce a steady and even flow of ink. Waterman got a patent for his new fountain pens in 1884.

As the 20th century wore on, Waterman's conservatism allowed its younger and more innovative competitors, i.e. Parker, and Sheaffer, etc to win more and more market share. By the later 1920s, Waterman was playing catch-up, and it continued to struggle through and beyond World War II. In 1954, it shut down.



Luckily, Waterman's French subsidiary, Waterman Jif (later Waterman S.A.) continued to prosper, even through the parent company's hard times, and eventually absorbed what remained of the American company and its British arm.

source: wikipedia, about.com

From Brand to Haute Horlogerie

Porsche Design acquired Eterna in 1995.


Porsche Design Worldtimer P'6750, Released in 2007
Movement: Calibre ETA Valgranges A 07 111 with Eterna Module (oops... still ETA); Self-winding Mechanical GMT Function


Bulgari acquired Gérald Genta and Daniel Roth in June 2000.



Montblanc (Richemont) acquired Minerva Villeret in in October 2006.



Hermès acquired 25% of Vaucher Manufacture Fleurier which is backed by the Sandoz Family Foundation in October 2006. In 2003, Hermès began its collaboration with Vaucher in manufacturing the first Dressage to celebrate the 75th anniversary of the beginning of its watch sales. In 2004, Vaucher created, especially for Hermès, a retrograde date function and lunar display for the Dressage.


Hermes - Dressage, 2003
Case: Platinum (40 mm)
Glass: Sapphire Crystal (Front and Back)
Calibre: Vaucher P1929 Automatic Movement
Features: Hours, Minutes, Seconds, Retrograde Date, Moon Phases
Power Reserve: 55 Hours
Water Resistant: 50 Metres.

My Readers (09.29.08)

After a year of hard work, my readers' profiles are amazingly diverse.



I will keep working on it. Yeah!

Icelink

6 time zones in one? Are you impressed?


Casing: Stainless Steel!
Diamond: VS; F-G Color!
Carat: 5.25 Carat with 325 Stone Count!
Calibre: 6x ETA 280.002, i.e. 6x Quartz Movements!
Retail Price: ~US$20,000, i.e. Amazingly Amazing!

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Established its international headquarters in Geneva in November 2007, founder and creator of the 6Timezone by IceLink, Andy Sogoyan, launched his first company CA Links in California in the 1970s.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Is it worth for what it is?

www.icelinkwatch.com

Libertango by Cello Project

Guardian - Leading University in UK

Ranking Institution Score
1 Oxford 100.0
2 Cambridge 92.9
3 London School of Economics 84.4
4 Warwick 81.6
5 St Andrews 78.4
6 Imperial College 78.1
7 UCL 76.6
8 SOAS 74.3
9 Edinburgh 73.4
10 Loughborough 72.9
11 York 72.5
12 Lancaster 71.8
13 Bath 71.1
14 Exeter 70.9
14 Leicester 70.9
16 Durham 69.2
17 Dundee 67.8
18 Aston 67.3
19 Nottingham 67.2
20 Glasgow 67.0
21 King's College London 66.5
22 Surrey 66.4
23 Aberdeen 66.1
24 Manchester 66.0
25 Southampton 65.8
26 City 65.4
27 Leeds 65.1
28 Kent 64.8
29 Strathclyde 64.2
30 Birmingham 64.1
31 Bristol 63.7
32 Stirling 62.9
33 Cardiff 62.7
34 Sussex 62.4
35 Royal Holloway 62.2
36 Essex 62.1
37 Sheffield 62.0
38 Bournemouth 61.8
39 Reading 61.4
40 UEA 61.3
41 Nottingham Trent 60.9
42 Goldsmiths 60.7
43 Newcastle 60.4
44 Liverpool 60.1
45 University of the Arts, London 60.0
46 Queen's, Belfast 59.8
47 Queen Mary 59.7
48 Plymouth 59.3
49 Napier 59.1
50 Robert Gordon 58.6

Source: Guardian, UK

Astor Piazzolla Libertango

Yo-Yo Ma - Libertango

Tango

The word Tango seems to have first been used in connection with the dance in the 1890s.

Initially, it was just one of the many dances, but it soon became popular throughout society from the suburbs to the working-class slums, which were packed with hundreds of thousands of European immigrants.
_________________________________________________________________

The dance was originated in lower-class districts of Buenos Aires. The music derived from the fusion of various forms of music from Europe. Jorge Luis Borges (1899 - 1986), an Argentine writer in "El idioma de los argentinos" writes: "Tango belongs to the Rio de la Plata (the estuary formed by the combination of the Uruguay River and the Paraná River) and it is the son of Uruguayan "Milonga" and grandson of the "Habanera".


Tango is a conversation between two people. It is based on the improvisation of mutual communication.


Stay tuned... ... The performance starts from 00:45
Astor Piazzolla Arr. Anderson & Roe - Libretango (Piano Duo)

How Sparkling Wine Is Made?

Grapes are picked and pressed. The juice is then fermented in the normal way that a white wine is produced.



Before the fermentation is fully completed, the vats are chilled. Therefore, some natural sugar is still left in the wine.

Then, the wine is bottled along with some extra yeast, and the yeast acts on the sugar in the wine and creates the fizz, i.e. carbon dioxide. This process can take two years.

As the gas cannot escape and is held under pressure, it will dissolve in the wine. When it is complete, all the natural sugar in the grapes is used up. However, the resulting wine tastes so dry as to be undrinkable.

Now, the yeast must be encouraged to move towards the cork so that it can be removed. This is done by storing the bottles with the cork downwards and letting the yeast settle. The bottles are regularly shaken gently and turned to encourage the yeast to move downward onto the cork. This process is known as remuage, or riddling.



Thereafter, the problem is how to remove the big lump of yeast from the end of the bottle. The ingenious method by which this is done is to freeze the neck of the bottle into the freezing brine. So that the wine in the neck turns into ice, and the yeast is trapped in it. The cork is then popped. The pressure of the fizz pushes the ice out with the yeast encased in it. This process is known as dégorgement.



The Sparking Wine is now tested for dryness - it is still far too dry to drink. Since some wine is lost along with the yeast, the bottle is topped up with a mixture of sweet white wine and sugar.

The amount of sugar that added will dictate the sweetness level of the Sparkling Wine.

* Brut Natural or Brut Zéro (less than 3 grams of sugar per liter)
* Extra Brut (less than 6 grams of sugar per liter)
* Brut (less than 15 grams of sugar per liter)
* Extra Sec or Extra Dry (12 to 20 grams of sugar per liter)
* Sec (17 to 35 grams of sugar per liter)
* Demi-Sec (33 to 50 grams of sugar per liter)
* Doux (more than 50 grams of sugar per liter)

After topping up, a new cork is put in the bottle, i.e. a wonderful Sparkling is made!



~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Many people credit Dom Pérignon, a famous old monk with the discovery that wines could be made fizzy by the second fermentation in a bottle. However, it was an Englishman scientist and physician, Christopher Merret who discovered this.

If Dom Pérignon is to be credited for anything, it should be the introduction of the cork stopper, an event in which he did play a role.

Data Source: bbc, thewinedoctor.com, wikipedia

Champagne

WINE ages with times like mankind.

~~~~~~~~~~

CHAMPAGNE
She is funny. She is easy-going.
She is a party animal,
and never put you in a distance.

Opportunities are always open.
Bubbles would blow up your mind,
and drive you like adrenaline.

It is a kind of easy come and easy go.
However, she would definitely be your joy of the night.

Unforgettable!

~~~~~~~~~~

Champagne
Unlike most of the other French wines, there is only one appellation of champagne, "Champagne". Anything labelled "Champagne" is produced in the Champagne region and conforms to the appellation standard.

There are just three grapes used to make Champagne (though there are tiny quantities of a few other obscure grape varieties planted and legally included), they are Pinot Noir, Pinot Meunier and Chardonnay. The first two are black grapes, the latter is white.


(Photo Source: M&C Saatchi)

~~~~~~~~~~

Cava
Spanish sparkling wine is known as Cava. It is produced in the same way as champagne. It uses a blend of Macabeo, Parellada and Xarel-lo (i.e. white grapes). But, Chardonnay is now also permitted, too.



~~~~~~~~~~

Prosecco
Prosecco is a variety of white grape grown in the Veneto region of Italy. It also gives its name to the sparkling wine made from the grape.



The name "Prosecco" is now protected under European law and can be used only for the wine made from the Prosecco grape in the Conegliano/Valdobbiadene region. The Italian Prosecco should not be confused with Dalmatian Prosecco, which is a special sweet wine (similar to sherry), made out of dried grapes.

~~~~~~~~~~

Crémant is the generic French name for sparkling wine
Cap Classique denotes a South African sparkling wine
Sekt is the German term for sparkling wine
Spumante is the Italian term for a sparkling wine

~~~~~~~~~~

Data Source: wikipedia, proseccoroad

Roger Dubuis Becomes A Richemont's Maison

Richemont is pleased to announce that the Group has acquired a controlling interest in the well known Geneva watch company, Manufacture Roger Dubuis SA in a private transaction with Mr. Carlos Dias, one of the founding shareholders.


Roger Dubuis - Excalibur EX45 01 Double Tourbillon

Case: 18K White Gold; Sapphire Crystal; Transparent Caseback
Dial: Mother-of-Pearl (white and brown) with painted Arabic and Roman Numberals
Movement: Caliber RD01, Manual, 52 jewels
Diameter: 45mm

Features:
Jumping Hour; Sweep and Retrograde Minutes;
2 Tourbillons which rotate in opposite directions to increase accuracy

Water Resistance: 30m

Manufacture Roger Dubuis SA will continue to manufacture and distribute watches under the "Roger Dubuis" name and will operate as an autonomous 'Maison' within Richemont. Roger Dubuis will benefit from broader integration of its distribution into the Richemont structure as a consequence of the transaction.

Commenting on the transaction, Mr Johann Rupert, Executive Chairman of Richemont, said: "Roger Dubuis watches are highly innovative in terms of movements and design. As a young business, it is very different from the more established specialist watchmakers within the Group today; as such it complements our Maisons perfectly. We look forward to developing the Roger Dubuis business internationally."

What Does "Oyster Perpetual" Mean?

How sad it would be if you own a Rolex while you don't know what
"Oyster Perpetual" is.

Is it referring a piece of Mother of Pearl or a complication of Perpetual Calendar?


(Rolex - Oyster Perpetual Yacht Master II Regatta Chronograph)

"Oyster Perpetual" is usually marked on the dial of a Rolex, i.e. you will see it on Air King, Datejust, Submariner, and Daytona, etc.

However, what does it mean?


(Rolex - Oyster 1926; The World First Truely Waterproof, Airtight Wristwatch;
By Courtesy of Antiquorum.com)


One day, Hans Wilsdorf the founder of Rolex hosted a dinner party and had a hard time in opening an oyster. Then, he made a comment to design a new watch which would prove to be as resilient as the mollusk to his guests. By 1926, the first "Oyster" was born, i.e. the first Rolex waterproof model.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

The word "Perpetual" in Rolex is believed to be derived from "Perpétuelles" by Breguet in the 18th century.

Based on the world first self-winding mechanism created by Perrelet in 1770, Breguet launched his own automatic movement, "Perpétuelles" in 1780. "Perpétuelles" is the French word for perpetual and would possibly be adapted by Rolex.

By 1931, the first "Perpetual" was born, i.e. the first Rolex automatic model.


(Rolex - Oyster Perpetual 1931; By Courtesy of Antiquorum.com)

http://www.rolex.com; http://www.antiquorum.com
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